The Achaemenids

All dates are BC (BCE)

c.558 Cyrus becomes king of Anshan.
550/549 Cyrus defeats Astyages, king of Medes, and takes Ecbatana.
547/546 Cyrus defeats Croesus, king of Lydia, and captures Sardis.
539 Cyrus conquers Babylon.
530 Cyrus is killed fighting the Massagetae and buried at Pasargadae. Cambyses becomes king.
525 Cambyses conquers Egypt
522 Death of Cambyses. Confusion in Persian empire
521 Cambyses' successor (whether his brother Bardiya/Smerdis or an impostor) is killed by a conspiracy of seven Persian nobles. One of them, Darius, becomes king.
521-519 Darius crushes rebels throughout Persian empire. He commemorates his achievements in an inscription on a cliff at Bisitun.
c 519 - 510 Campaigns of Darius in east (conquest in India) and west (failure against Scythians, success in Macedonia and Thrace).
508 Expulsion of the tyrants at Athens, and beginning of democratic government.
500 - 494 Ionian revolt against Persian rule eventually crushed.
490 Battle of Marathon.
486 Death of Darius. He is succeeded by his son Xerxes.
485 Rebellion against Persians in Egypt is put down.
481 Rebellion in Babylonia crushed.
480 Xerxes' army invades Greece. Conquest of Macedonia and Thessaly. Victory at Thermopylae. Defeat at sea in Battle of Salamis.
479 Athens sacked and burnt. Persians defeated on land at Plataea, and by sea at Mykale.
465 Xerxes and Darius, his heir, are both murdered. His younger son becomes king Artaxerxes I.
466 (?) Battle of Eurymedon. Delian League under Cimon defeats Persians
461 -456(?) Rebellion of Egypt eventually crushed despite Athenian help.
431 - 404 Peloponnesian War beween Athens and Sparta.
423 Death of Artaxerxes I. Succeeded by Darius II.
404 Athens loses war, due to Persian help for Sparta. Darius II succeeded by Artaxerxes II.
401 Battle of Cunaxa near Babylon. Cyrus fails to replace his brother Artaxexes II, despite help from 10,000 Greek mercenaries.
387/6 The King's Peace returns Ionia to Persian control.
359 - 338 Reign of Artaxerxes III. Reconquest of Egypt. Unrest in Persian empire ends.
356 After brief reign of Artxerxes III's son Arses, his grandson Darius III becomes the last Achaemenid king.