The Sasanians

All dates are AD (CE)

205 -224 Pabag and sons Shapur and Ardashir conquer Persis and Elymais
224-241 Ardashir I - Sasanians occupy all Parthian teritory exxcept Armenia. First challenges to Roman rule in Mesopotamia west of Euphrates.
241-272 Shapur I - Defeat of 3 Roman emperors: Gordian III killed, Philip the Arab surrenders, Valerian is captured. Conquest of Armenia, and expansion into Syria. Defeat of Odaenathus of Palmyra.
272-273 Hurmazd I
273-276 Bahram I
276-293 Bahram II Rise of mowbed Kerdir; death of Mani
293 Bahram III
293-302 Narseh - Treaty of Nisibis. Sasanians give up teritory west of Tigris to Romans
302-309 Hurmazd II
309-379 Shapur II - Territory lost to Romans regained. Failure of Julian's invasion, and peace with Jovian. Persecution of Christians following conversion of emperor Constantine.
379-383 Ardashir II
383-388 Shapur III Sasanians regain eastern Armenia.
388-399 Bahram IV
399-420 Yazdegird I - beginning of Hephthalite invasions
420-438 Bahram V
438-457 Yazdegird II
457-459 Hurmazd III
457-484 Peroz I - crushing defeats by Hephthalites. Church of the East becomes independent.
484-488 Balash
488-496 Kavad I - Failure of social reforms leads to Kavad's imprisonment.
496-498 Jamasp
498-531 Kavad I - cadastral survey of land and reform of taxation leads to popular discontent encouraged by communist Mazdak.
531-579 Khusrau I - crushing of Mazdak and his followers. Renewed attack on Roman Syria. Destruction of Hephthalites with Turkish help. Peace with Byzantium - who agreesto pay tribute to Khusrau. Conquest of Yemen and defeat of Ethiopians.
579-590 Hurmazd IV - social unrest. Invasion by Turks.
590-591 Bahram VI Chobin - non-Sasanian pretender defeated with Roman help
591-628 Khusrau II [Bistam 591-595; Hurmazd V 593] - recovery of Egypt and Anatolia, which are subsequently lost again in counter-attack by emperor Heraclius. Sack of Jerusalem (614)
628 Kavad II
628-630 Ardashir III [Shahrbaraz 630; Khusrau III 630]
630-631 Borandukht
631 Azarmidokht
631-632 Hurmazd VI
631-633 Khusrau IV
632-651 Yazdegird III - Defeats by Muslim armies at Qadisiyya and Nihavand. The Sasanian empire falls to the Arabs.